Ferguson Data

Additional Methodological Information For:

Regarding Ferguson, Blacks and Whites are Worlds Apart

Data

Data were collected by Qualtrics from a sample provided by Clearvoice surveys research.  Questions about Ferguson appeared near the end of a 20 minute survey. 3,730 individuals who completed the survey were compensated for their participation, an additional 801 individuals began the survey but did not complete it (their data was included where available).  Responses to questions about Ferguson were not required, but between 19 and 30 individuals refused to answer any given question about Ferguson.  Ns for comparisons with racial resentment are lower as racial resentment measures appeared in a subsequent survey wave.

 

Cross-tabs showing racial divide on Ferguson among respondents

Wilson should be charged

  Whites (n=2,966) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=256)
Definitely shouldn’t be charged 613 (20.67%) 5 (1.97%) 24 (9.38%)
Probably shouldn’t be charged 1,103 (37.19%) 18 (7.09%) 65 (25.39%)
Probably should be charged 926 (31.22%) 97 (38.19%) 105 (41.02%)
Definitely should be charged 324 (10.92%) 134 (52.76%) 62 (24.22%)
Mean .44 .81 .60

 

Wilson should be charged by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=503) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,129)

Mean .56 .48 .37

 

Wilson should be charged by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .84 .74 .74

 

Wilson should be charged by how much heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=698) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=774) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,494)

Mean .51 .46 .40

 

Wilson should be charged by how much heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .73 .73 .84

 

 

Wilson will be charged

  Whites (n=2,970) Blacks (n=255) Hispanics (n=256)
Not at all likely 632 (21.28%) 76 (29.8%) 57 (22.27%)
Slightly likely 983 (33.1%) 74 (29.02%) 75 (29.3%)
Moderately likely 1,012 (34.07%) 69 (27.06) 64 (25%)
Very likely 247 (8.32%) 15 (5.88%) 43 (16.8%)
Extremely likely 96 (3.23%) 21 (8.24%) 17 (6.64%)
Mean .35 .33 .39

 

Wilson will be charged by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=504) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,130)

Mean .31 .34 .37

 

Wilson will be charged by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .27 .38 .41

 

Wilson will be charged by how much heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=701) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=774) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,495)

Mean .34 .34 .35

 

Wilson will be charged by how much heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=171)

Mean .34 .34 .33

 

Wilson should be found guilty

  Whites (n=2,963) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=255)
Definitely shouldn’t be guilty 650 (21.94%) 6 (2.36%) 26 (10.2%)
Probably shouldn’t be guilty 1,127 (38.04%) 19 (7.48%) 77 (30.2%)
Probably should be guilty 905 (30.54%) 93 (36.61%) 90 (35.29%)
Definitely should be guilty 281 (9.48%) 136 (53.54%) 62 (24.31%)­­­
Mean .43 .80 .58

 

Wilson should be found guilty by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=502) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=354) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,128)

Mean .53 .47 .35

 

Wilson should be found guilty by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .83 .74 .70

 

Wilson should be found guilty by how much heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=697) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=772) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,494)

Mean .50 .44 .39

 

Wilson should be found guilty by how much heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .74 .73 .84

 

 

Wilson will be found guilty

  Whites (n=2,968) Blacks (n=255) Hispanics (n=255)
Not at all likely 953 (32.11%) 95 (37.25%) 67 (26.27%)
Slightly likely 1,016 (34.23%) 63 (24.71%) 62 (24.31%)
Moderately likely 745 (25.10%) 60 (23.53%) 72 (28.24%)
Very likely 182 (6.13%) 17 (6.67%) 36 (14.12%)
Extremely likely 72 (2.43%) 20 (7.84%) 18 (7.06%)
Mean .28 .31 .38

 

Wilson will be found guilty by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=504) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,130)

Mean .25 .30 .29

 

Wilson will be found guilty by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .26 .39 .38

 

Wilson will be found guilty by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=700) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=774) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,494)

Mean .31 .28 .27

 

Wilson will be found guilty by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=171)

Mean .34 .35 .29

 

Brown attacked Wilson

  Whites (n=2,968) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=256)
Not at all likely 348 (11.73%) 111 (43.7%) 53 (20.7%)
Slightly likely 636 (21.43%) 64 (25.2%) 44 (17.19%)
Moderately likely 876 (29.51%) 49 (19.29%) 73 (28.52%)
Very likely 554 (18.67%) 18 (7.09%) 51 (19.92%)
Extremely likely 554 (18.67% 12 (4.72%) 35 (13.67%)
Mean .53 .26 .47

 

Brown attacked Wilson by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=504) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1129)

Mean .40 .47 .62

 

Brown attacked Wilson by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .25 .33 .37

 

Brown attacked Wilson by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=699) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=773) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,496)

Mean .42 .49 .60

 

Brown attacked Wilson by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .29 .28 .25

 

Brown had a weapon

  Whites (n=2,960) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=256)
Definitely didn’t have a weapon 1,027 (34.7%) 182 (71.65%) 82 (32.03%)

 

Probably didn’t have a weapon 1,254 (42.36%) 61 (24.02%) 96 (37.50%)
Probably did have a weapon 577 (19.49%) 9 (3.54%) 59 (23.05%)
Definitely did have a weapon 102 (3.45%) 2 (.79%) 19 (7.42%)
Mean .31 .11 .35

 

Brown had a weapon by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=503) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=354) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,128)

Mean .21 .35 .33

 

Brown had a weapon by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .08 .19 .16

 

Brown had a weapon by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=695) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=772) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,493)

Mean .39 .34 .25

 

Brown had a weapon by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .26 .16 .07

 

Appropriateness of protest

  Whites (n=2,966) Blacks (n=255) Hispanics (n=256)
Not at all appropriate 990 (33.38%) 27 (10.59%) 50 (19.53)
A little appropriate 662 (22.32%) 24 (9.41%) 41 (16.02%)
Somewhat appropriate 635 (21.41%) 37 (14.51%) 63 (24.61%)
Mostly appropriate 331 (11.16%) 36 (14.12%) 49 (19.14%)
Completely appropriate 348 (11.73%) 131 (51.37%) 53 (20.7%)
Mean .36 .72 .51

 

Appropriateness of protest by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment Whites <.5 (n=503) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,128)

Mean .55 .37 .27

 

Appropriateness of protest by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .71 .60 .67

 

Appropriateness of protest by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=698) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=773) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,495)

Mean .37 .36 .36

 

Appropriateness of protest by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=171)

Mean .61 .64 .76

 

Appropriateness of police use of military-style equipment

  Whites (n=2,966) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=256)
Not at all appropriate 840 (28.32%) 134 (52.76%) 63 (24.61%)

 

A little appropriate 572 (19.29%) 42 (16.54%) 45 (17.58%)
Somewhat appropriate 667 (22.49%) 46 (18.11%) 70 (27.34%)
Mostly appropriate 352 (11.87%) 16 (6.3%) 43 (16.8%)
Completely appropriate 535 (18.04%) 16 (6.3%) 35 (13.67%)
Mean .43 .24 .44

 

Appropriateness of police use of military-style equipment by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=503) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,129)

Mean .27 .39 .53

 

Appropriateness of police use of military-style equipment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=27) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .23 .28 .36

 

Appropriateness of police use of military-style equipment by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=699) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=771) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,496)

Mean .38 .42 .46

Appropriateness of police use of military-style equipment by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=48) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=171)

Mean .25 .27 .23

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting?

Whites (n=2,967) Blacks (n=252) Hispanics (n=256)
No role at all 748 (25.21%) 8 (3.17%) 27 (10.55%)

 

A little role 547 (18.44%) 21 (8.33%) 42 (16.41%)
A moderate role 609 (20.53%) 38 (15.08%) 70 (27.34%)
A large role 489 (16.48%) 66 (26.19%) 62 (24.22%)
An enormous role 574 (19.35%) 119 (47.22%) 55 (21.48%)
Mean .47 .76 .57

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting? by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=504) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,128)

Mean .60 .49 .40

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting? by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=26) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .79 .74 .68

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting? by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=700) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=772) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,495)

Mean .44 .47 .48

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting? by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=34) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=48) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .65 .7 .81

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the protests?

­­­­­­ Whites (n=2,969) Blacks (n=254) Hispanics (n=256)
No role at all 70 (2.36%) 13 (5.12%) 9 (3.52%)

 

A little role 146 (4.92%) 14 (5.51%) 21 (8.2%)
A moderate role 404 (13.61%) 40 (15.75%) 58 (22.66%)
A large role 697 (23.48%) 68 (26.77%) 63 (24.61%)
An enormous role 1,652 (55.64%) 119 (46.85%) 105 (41.02%)
Mean .81 .76 .73

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the protests? by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=503) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,130)

Mean .80 .73 .84

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the protests? by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .79 .76 .74

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the protests? by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=700) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=773) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,496)

Mean .69 .78 .89

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the protests? by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=170)

Mean .66 .70 .80

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the police response?

­­­­­­ Whites (n=2,969) Blacks (n=255) Hispanics (n=254)
No role at all 600 (20.21%) 12 (4.71%) 31 (12.2%)

 

A little role 573 (19.3%) 20 (7.84%) 34 (13.39%)
A moderate role 873 (29.4%) 38 (14.9%) 83 (32.68%)
A large role 493 (16.6%) 56 (21.96%) 55 (21.65%)
An enormous role 430 (14.48%) 129 (50.59%) 51 (20.08%)
Mean .46 .76 .56

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the police response? by resentment (Whites)

  Low racial resentment whites <.5 (n=504) Moderate Resentment Whites =.5 (n=355) High Resentment Whites

>.5 (n=1,129)

Mean .59 .48 .40

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the police response? by resentment (Blacks)

  Low racial resentment Blacks <.5 (n=84) Moderate Resentment Blacks =.5 (n=28) High Resentment Blacks

>.5 (n=36)

Mean .79 .71 .69

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the police response? by heard about Ferguson (Whites)

  Heard little <.5 (n=700) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=773) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=1,496)

Mean .45 .46 .47

 

How much of a role do you think race played in the police response? by heard about Ferguson (Blacks)

  Heard little <.5 (n=35) Heard a moderate amount =.5 (n=49) Heard a lot

>.5 (n=171)

Mean .65 .66 .82

 

Questions used for all analyses:

* Items in brackets indicate survey logic and randomly assigned differences between respondents, italicized items represent response options with parentheses showing how those were coded for analyses.

Ferguson Questions

[Respondents were randomly presented with one of the following 3 introductions]

Vers1: As you may have heard, there was a recent controversy in Ferguson, Missouri, where Darren Wilson, a white police officer, is accused of shooting Michael Brown, an 18-year old black man.

Vers2: As you may have heard, there was a recent controversy in Ferguson, Missouri, where Darren Wilson, a white police officer, is accused of shooting Michael Brown, an 18-year old black man.  This was later followed by large street protests and some rioting.

Vers3: As you may have heard, there was a recent controversy in Ferguson, Missouri, where Darren Wilson, a white police officer, is accused of shooting Michael Brown, an 18-year old black man.  This was later followed by large street protests and some rioting.  Police responded with military-style equipment.

F1 – How much would you say you have heard about the events in Ferguson?  Nothing at all (0); A little bit (.25); A moderate amount (.5); A lot (.75); A great deal (1)

F2 – Given what you have heard, do you think that Darren Wilson, the police officer, should be charged with murder?  He definitely should be charged (1); He probably should be charged (.66); He probably should NOT be charged (.33); He definitely should NOT be charged (0)

F4 – Given what you have heard, how likely do you think it is that Darren Wilson, the police officer, will be charged with murder?  Not at all likely (0); A little likely (.25); Somewhat likely (.5); Very likely (.75); Extremely likely (1)

F6 – Given what you have heard, how likely do you think it is that Michael Brown [RANDOMIZE: ( NOTHING / , the victim,)] attacked Darren Wilson, the police officer?  Not at all likely (0); A little likely (.25); Somewhat likely (.5); Very likely (.75); Extremely likely (1)

F10 – How much of a role do you think race played in the shooting?  No role at all (0); A little role (.25); A moderate role (.5); A large role (.75); An enormous role (1)

F11 – How much of a role do you think race played in the protests?  No role at all (0); A little role (.25); A moderate role (.5); A large role (.75); An enormous role (1)

F12 – How much of a role do you think race played in the police response?  No role at all (0); A little role (.25); A moderate role (.5); A large role (.75); An enormous role (1)

Race questions

D6 – Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? No, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; Yes, Mexican, Mexican American, or Chicano; Yes, Puerto Rican; Yes, Cuban; Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin

D7 – [IF D6 = YES: In addition to being Hispanic,] Which of the following describes your race? Please select all that apply.  White or Caucasian; Black or African American; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander; Other (specify)

Coding – Respondents were coded as “White” if they selected only “White or Caucasian” for D7 and if they reported that they were not Hispanic in D6.  Respondents were coded as “Black” if they selected only “Black or African American” for D7 and if they reported that they were not Hispanic in D6.  Respondents were coded as “Hispanic” if they selected “Yes” in D6 regardless of what they selected in D7.

Racial Resentment

R1 – Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with the following statements:

a – Irish, Italians, [RANDOMIZE: (Jews / Jewish)], and other minorities overcame prejudice and worked their way up. Blacks should do the same without special favors. Strongly disagree (0); Somewhat disagree (.25); Neither agree nor disagree (.5); Somewhat agree (.75); Strongly agree (1).

b – It’s really a matter of some people just not trying hard enough; if blacks would only try harder, they could just be as well off as whites. Strongly disagree (1); Somewhat disagree (.75); Neither agree nor disagree (.5); Somewhat agree (.25); Strongly agree (0).

c – Generations of slavery have created conditions that make it difficult for blacks to work their way out of the lower class. Strongly disagree (1); Somewhat disagree (.75); Neither agree nor disagree (.5); Somewhat agree (.25); Strongly agree (0).

d – Over the past few years, Blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve. Strongly disagree (0); Somewhat disagree (.25); Neither agree nor disagree (.5); Somewhat agree (.75); Strongly agree (1).

R2 – Some people say that Black leaders have been trying to push too fast. Others feel that they haven’t pushed fast enough. What do you think? Trying to push too fast (1); Haven’t pushed fast enough (0); Pushing at about the right speed (.5).

R3 – How much of the racial tension that exists in the United States today do you think Blacks are responsible for creating? Not much at all (0); Some (.33); Most (.66); All of it (1).

R4 – How much discrimination against Blacks do you feel there is in the United States today, limiting their chances to get ahead?  None at all (1); A little (.66); Some (.33); A lot (1).

Coding – Racial resentment was coded as the average of all questions from R1 to R4.

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